Your ultimate guide to knives

Guide to the Best Knife Steel

steelIn choosing the best pocket knife you should pay particular attention to the type of steel used in the blade.  Steel is really the essence of the blade and primarily responsible for how the knife performs.  Steel is essentially an alloy (i.e. a mix) of carbon and iron that is often enriched with other elements to improve certain characteristics depending on the desired application.  In the knife industry different types of steel are created by varying the types of additive elements as well as how the blade is rolled and heated (i.e. the finishing process).  Refer to our Knife Steel Composition Chart for more details on these elements.

Ultimately the different types of steel used in pocket knife blades result in varying degrees of the following properties:

  • Strength – This represents the ability to resist deforming when subject to stress and applied forces
  • Hardness - Similar to strength this refers to the ability to avoid any permanent deformations
  • Toughness - The ability to resist damage like cracks or chips when being used in heavy duty applications.  This also defines the steel’s ability to flex without breaking.   Note that the stronger or harder the steel the less tough it will likely be.
  • Wear Resistance – This is the steel’s ability to withstand wear and general abrasion during normal use
  • Corrosion/Rust Resistance - This is the ability to resist corrosion such as rust caused by external element.  Note that a high resistance to corrosion does involve a sacrifice in the overall edge performance.
  • Initial Sharpness – This is simply how sharp the blade is when first used
  • Edge Retention - Represents how long the blade will retain its sharpness and not require re-sharpening

Unfortunately the “best knife steel” is not simply a case of maximizing each of the properties above.  The biggest trade off is balancing strength or hardness with toughness.  Some blades can be made to be exceptionally hard but will shatter into pieces if you drop them onto a hard surface.  Conversely a blade can be extremely tough and able to bend but will never hold it’s edge.  Also it’s worth mentioning that the term ‘stainless steel’ is generally misleading as all types of steel will show some kind of discoloration if left exposed to the elements for long enough.  So, as with most questions in life the answer to “what is the best knife steel?” can only be answered with “it depends”.   By knowing how you plan to use the knife you will generally be able to determine the best steel for your situation.

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Types of knife steel

Below we have listed some of the more common types of stainless steel found in pocket knife blades.  Note that to qualify as a true stainless steel there must be at least 14% chromium.

premium

CPM S35VN

In 2009, Crucible and Chris Reeve introduced a superior version of their excellent S30V steel and named it S35VN.  By using a much finer grain structure and adding small quantities of niobium they were able to improve the toughness and ability to sharpen what was already an outstanding steel in the S30V.   Many would argue this is the ultimate in knife steels and you would struggle to find any steel with better edge retention, toughness and stain resistance.

CPM S30V

Made by US based Crucible, CPM S30V (often simply referred to as S30V) steel has excellent edge retention and resists rust effortlessly.  It was designed in the US and is typically used for the high-end premium pocket knives and expensive kitchen cutlery.  This is generally regarded as one of the finest knife blade steels with the optimal balance of hardness and toughness, second only to S35VN.

Elmax

European Bohler-Uddeholm introduced Elmax which is a high chromium-vanadium-molybdenum alloyed powdered steel with extremely high wear and corrosion resistance.

BG-42

This type of steel is also considered a premium material which has a superior edge holding ability compared to the high-end steels described below.  It is also incredibly stain resistant.  Note however that while this material is extremely resistant to wear and tear the tradeoff is that it can be somewhat difficult to sharpen.

High end

154CM

A nice hard steel similar to S30V originating from the US and is reasonably resistant to corrosion.  It has superb toughness good enough for most uses and holds an edge extremely well.  Moderately difficult to sharpen.  You’ll find a lot of quality pocket knives from top manufacturers like Benchmade using 154CM steel.  You may also see CPM 154CM which is technically the same alloy but produced much differently using Crucible Particle Metallurgy.  The CPM process makes finer carbide particles and thus produces a superior steel with better edge retention … but whether the average user can tell the difference is arguable.

ATS-34

This steel can be thought of as the Japanese equivalent to the US made 154CM.  Accordingly, it has very similar properties and characteristics to the 154CM and in general represents a high quality steel which has become very popular with knife makers.  ATS-34 has great edge retention but is actually a little less rust resistant than the lower-range 440C steel.

D2

The D2 steel is often referred to as “semi-stainless” as it lacks the required amount of chromium (14%) to qualify as full stainless yet it still provides a good amount of resistance to corrosion.  On the flip side D2 steel is much harder than other steels in this category such as 154CM or ATS-34 and as a result holds its edge a little better.  That said, it is accordingly tougher to sharpen.  In fact, you really need to be a master-sharpener to get a fine edge on D2.

VG-10

The VG-10 steel is very similar to 154CM and ATS-34 with slightly more chromium but also contains vanadium which makes it marginally “better” than these two.  It originated not too long ago from Japan and has been slowly introduced into the American market by respect knife makers like Spyderco.  It’s really hard and can get extremely sharp but also a little brittle.  Overall we like this steel a lot.

N680

N680 steel contains about 20% nitrogen making it extremely corrosion resistant.  It also contains about 1.5% cobalt which allows it to be made very hard and can take a real fine edge given it is a fine grained steel.  It’s ability to hold an edge is similar to 154CM.  Again, this steel is all about the corrosion resistance so if you’re blade will be in frequent contact with salt water for example then this is the steel for you.

upper mid range

440C

This is a stainless steel commonly used on many mass-manufactured pocket knives and represents a solid affordable all-round choice.  It’s reasonably tough and wear resistant but it really excels at stain resistance.  The 440C blades can be easily sharpened.  It has the highest levels of carbon and chromium in this group.

AUS-8

AUS-8 steel is Japanese made and like the 440C is highly resistant to rust and corrosion.  It’s also similarly tough but may not hold its edge as well as some of the more premium steels which carry a greater degree of carbon.  Real easy to sharpen.

8Cr13MoV

The MoV series of steels originate from China and comparable to AUS-8 but containing slightly higher carbon content.  You typically get great value for money with this steel and good manufacturers like Spyderco have mastered the heat treatment process to bring out its best.

14C28N

The 14C28N stainless steel from Swedish manufacturer Sandvik is considered an upgrade to their 13C26 described below.  In the lab you’ll find more chromium in the 14C28N but in our opinion the difference is marginal.  Overall a decent mid-range steel that can be made extremely sharp.

lower mid range

420HC

Similar to 420 steel but with increased levels of carbon (HC stands for High Carbon) which makes the steel harder.  Still considered a lower-mid range steel but the more competent manufacturers (e.g. Buck) can really bring out the best in this affordable steel using quality heat treatments.  That results in better edge retention and resistance to corrosion.

440A

Very much like 420HC but with slightly more chromium which results in enhanced levels of wear resistance and anti-corrosion properties.

13C26

Close comparison to 440A steel with a higher carbon to chromium ratio making it generally a little harder and wearable at the expense of corrosion resistance.   Still, in real world applications it’s difficult to tell them apart and they tend to perform very similarly.  The 13C26 and slightly higher end 14C28N were originally developed for razor blades and as you’d expect can be “razor” sharp.

low end

420 & 420J

The 420 steel is on the lower end of the quality spectrum but still perfectly fine for general use applications.  It has a relatively low carbon content (usually less than 0.5%) which makes for a softer blade and as a result will tend to lose it’s edge quicker than higher end steels.   Blades made from 420 steel will rapidly lose their sharp edge over a relatively short time period.  That said, it’s typically tough with high flexibility and stain resistant  but it is not particularly resistant to wear and tear. As you would expect, knives made from this type of steel are generally low priced, mass produced items.

AUS-6

Japanese made equivalent to the 420 series steel.  Generally low quality and relatively little carbon content.

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What about Damascus steel?

Damascus steel originates from the middle east from countries like India and Pakistan where it was first used back in good old “BC” times.  It’s instantly recognizable as it bears a swirling pattern caused by the welding of two different steels and so often referred to as “pattern-welded” steel (not to be confused with Wootz steel which is only similar in appearance).  There are many myths about the strength and capabilities of Damascus steel but today it is largely popular because of its aesthetic beauty.  Mostly for collectors only.

Other considerations

Remember, blade steel is not everything.  Knife buyers should beware getting caught up in researching the perfect steel type as it is not by itself the only thing that dictates how a knife will perform.  Steel analysis has become somewhat scientific that it’s easy to get caught up in the maze of statistics.   Note – just because a blade is made from the premium or high-end steels listed above does not automatically mean it’s “better” than the lesser steels.  The heat treatment techniques used by the manufacturer play a huge role in the ultimate outcome of knife performance!

In reality, all modern steels will perform well enough for most users so consider spending more time on other aspects of the pocket knife such as how the knife handles and other features.